8. Zápor

18. ledna 2010 v 13:30 | Christy 退屈した Winchester |  Japonština
Z minula víme, že partikule WA は označuje téma věty, partikule MO も znamená "také", DESU です je něco jako "být" a partikule KA か vytváří otázku (pozn. v Japonštině se za KA většinou nepíše otazník). V této lekci se naučíme záporné věty.
Zápor se tvoří tak, že DESU です nahradíme za DEWA ARIMASEN ではありません. WA se i zde píše hiraganou slabikou HA は. Lze také použít JA ARIMASEN じゃありません (čteme "dža arimasen"), což je méně formální. Tento druh záporu funguje pouze pro podstatná jména. Nejlépe se to pochopí na příkladech.

+ Já jsem ninja
Watashi wa ninja desu. 私は忍者です

- Já nejsem ninja
Watashi wa ninja dewa arimasen. 私は忍者ではありません
Watashi wa ninja ja arimasen. 私は忍者じゃありません

Místo WA lze použít i MO, pak to má význam buď "také" nebo něco jako "ani".
Boku MO baka ja arimasen. 僕も馬鹿じゃありません。Já také nejsem blbec (Ani já nejsem blbec).
Další příklady:
Naruto wa hokage dewa arimasen. ナルトは火影ではありません。 Naruto není Hokage.
Sakura mo hokage dewa arimasen. さくらも火影ではありません。 Ani Sakura není Hokage.
Nihongo wa kantan ja arimasen. 日本語は簡単じゃありません。 Japonština není jednoduchá.
V příští lekci si dáme kombinování podstatných jmen pomocí partikule NO の

Buď první, kdo ohodnotí tento článek.


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